What is the Safari Difference in Stem Cell Therapy?

Here at Safari Veterinary Care Centers, we are implementing a Translational Medicine[1] approach to stem cell therapy. This method takes validated research in stem cell therapy and applies the techniques to clinical cases. Much of this research is done on dogs, but the results are focused on the needs of humans. We are translating these results to help our canine companions. In this effort, Safari has developed an advanced in–house Stem Cell Laboratory for processing stem cells, evaluating stem cell viability, expanding stem cell cultures, and the cryopreservation of stem cell lines. Safari also has staff certified in human and veterinary stem cell therapy techniques, as well as surgeons skilled in surgery of the nervous system and spine, equipped with specialized radiology (C–Arm fluoroscopy) for injecting stem cells into the intervertebral disc, spine, joint or other area of need with precision. Safari also employs specialists in rehabilitation armed with extensive rehabilitation tools for bringing the stem cell treatment the full circle of success.


[1]Translational medicine: The goal of translational medicine is to combine disciplines, resources, expertise and techniques to promote enhancements in prevention, diagnosis and therapies. Translational medicine is a rapidly growing discipline in biomedical research and aims to expedite the discovery of new diagnostic tools and treatments. Translational medicine is focused on ensuring that proven strategies for disease treatment and prevention are implemented within the community. Two hurdles that need to be overcome are: 1.) The first translational block prevents basic research findings from being tested in a clinical setting. Safari is using basic research on stem cells and applying these technologies to the care of pets. 2.) The second translational block prevents proven interventions from becoming standard practice. Safari is pioneering the way for other practices to adopt the techniques developed here. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has made a major push to fund translational medicine for humans, especially within biomedical research, to increase the speed at which new treatments reach patients.

Why Regenerative Medicine?

Regenerative cells promote healing and regeneration of injured or damaged tissue. Stem cells are regenerative cells that can differentiate into multiple cell types to form new functional tissue. These cells (located in your pet’s fat stores) can be harvested, separated from the fat, and stimulated to revert to an active reparative state. Regenerative cells may also secrete factors that reduce autoimmune responses and inflammation, promote cell survival, and stimulate tissue regeneration.

Our system providers, InGeneron and Medivet Biologics, have been conducting research for years on the use of autologous adult stem cells in regenerative medicine. InGeneron’s team of scientists and clinicians have published more than 40 peer-reviewed studies in collaboration with renowned academic facilities, such as M.D. Anderson Cancer Center and Tulane University. Medivet is currently conducting research on Stem Cell Therapy for Osteoarthritis at Kansas State University, and Cartilage Regeneration and Osteoarthritis at the University of Georgia.

Unlike other cell therapy procedures, both the InGeneron and MediVet systems enable isolation and treatment within the same day processed at the Safari Stem Cell Laboratory, assuring high quality and quantity of cells.

What are stem cells?

Stem cells are a special class of cells that have not yet decided what they want to be. Therefore, stem cells can be any other cell of the body; meaning, stem cells can develop into all kinds of other cells. The body was developed from embryonic stem cells and is maintained and repaired by adult stem cells. Adult stem cells are located in all tissues of the body and are kept in a resting state until called upon for tissue repair.

What are adult stem cells?

Adult stem cells were first found in the blood and bone marrow. They were found in small numbers and had to be cultured and expanded to larger numbers to be available for research and therapeutics. These cells have been used in the treatment of leukemia since the 1960's. Radiation is used to remove all cells in the bone marrow including the cancer cells. Then the bone marrow is repopulated with stem cells called hematopoietic stem cells. These stem cells grow all the different constituents of the blood producing cells located in the bone marrow. Adult stem cells have recently been found in other tissues of the body. In fact, most if not all tissues of the body have adult stem cells. These stem cells are for the restoration, repair and regeneration of damaged tissue. In most tissues, such as the brain spinal cord and heart, these cells are few and far between, but in some tissues such as fatty (adipose) tissues, these cells are present in huge numbers. These adult stem cells are called mesenchymal stem cells and are the hottest topic in regenerative medicine today. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs), for the first time, offer a therapeutic option yielding enough cells that are robust and ready to heal to make it clinically viable.

Is PRP (Platelet Rich Plasma) the same as stem cells?

No. However, PRP is often used with stem cells, because the growth factors in the platelets kick start the stem cells and gives better results than stem cells alone. Platelet rich plasma is derived from your pet's own blood and contain many chemicals (including growth factors), that are responsible for initiating the healing processes in the body. PRP can be used on its own to treat arthritis and many other conditions.

Where do stem cells come from?

In our process, cells are collected from a specific section of abdominal fatty (adipose) tissue from your pet's cells. The collected cells do not come from some other dog or something else, which makes them more trustworthy, compatible and, therefore, a safer option. Stem cells are also found in adult bone marrow, but there are very few cells and it requires weeks of lab culture to get enough cells for a treatment. Adipose derived, adult cells are safer than embryonic and quicker than bone marrow derived cells. Additionally, fat tissue has many more cells and we can get enough cells for treatment the same day.

How are stem cells processed?

A golf ball size sample of fat is removed through a surgical incision on the lower belly, like a spay. Once collected, it is processed in-house, using a proprietary mechanism that separates the stem cells from the fat, it is then prepared for return administration, using sterile techniques.

Where are the stem cells prepared and under what conditions?

Cells prepared on-site are more viable. Sterile biological safety protocols, methods, and equipment are important.

How does Safari compare to other ways of processing stem cells?

The largest stem cell company in America (Vetstem) requires that the veterinarian collect the fatty tissue, ship it to California for processing and then the cells are shipped back to the practitioner for administration 24 to 48 hours later. The viability of these cells is unknown, but studies have shown they start to die very quickly after being separated from the supporting fatty tissue that they come from. Other companies (Medivet, Ingeneron, Animal cell therapies, Cellavet, Invitrix) sell a kit and a centrifuge to the practitioner for processing the fatty tissue to extract the stromal vascular fraction in the practice. This process has questionable sterility of the cells, because there is no biological safety cabinet which the tissue is processed. Injecting infected stem cells into a damaged joint or spine can have grave consequences. At Safari, we use a laminar flow biologic safety cabinet and clean bench to process all the tissues and cells in compliance with cell culture safety techniques established by the FDA. In this way, we couple the advantages of superior processing with increased viability and same day procedures.

Why is it important to know how many stem cells you have?

Viability and cell numbers are important. For example, when using stem cells for intervertebral disc disease, the cells are injected directly into the disc. If too many cells are injected they will all die, if too few cells are injected they will not be effective. In addition, it is not just the number of cells, but also the number of live cells injected that makes a difference. In the heart or kidney, the number of live cells matter. Unless you can determine at the time of injection, the number of live cells per millimeter of SVF, you cannot accurately predict the outcome. At Safari, we have live and dead cell counting techniques using special fluorescent dyes and special phase contrast fluorescent microscopes that allow us to see and count the live stem cells. We can also see the morphology of the stem cells; giving us subjective information about their health.

What happens to stem cells after they are removed from the body?

Stem Cells are fragile, they do not withstand shipping or handling, even if chilled. As a matter of fact, the colder they get the faster they die, unless we are talking about liquid nitrogen temperatures of –190°C or –320°F. Even then, controlled cooling in special cryogenic solutions is necessary to maintain their ability to be thawed and still live. This is an issue because many stem cell therapies require multiple treatments. Storing the cells locally in liquid nitrogen is an essential element to proper provision of therapy. At Safari, we have a specially designed computer controlled liquid nitrogen freezer that takes the cells down in temperature in a stepwise fashion resulting in minimal fatal crystal formation and a high viability rate. At Safari, every pet has several treatment aliquots frozen for future use.

How are stem cells stored?

Cells can be cryogenically stored (frozen) or cultured to keep them alive and increase their total count. At Safari, we have a specially designed computer controlled liquid nitrogen freezer that allows us to store harvested stem cells for future use. Our cryogenic system takes the cells down in temperature in a stepwise fashion resulting in minimal fatal crystal formation and a high viability rate. Cells are most effective if given multiple times, between initial collection and the second or third administration.

How are the stem cells administered?

Stem cells are administered by skilled surgeons directly into area of injury or disease with advanced imaging for needle guidance. Intravenous administration is rarely effective when given alone.

Why does Safari use different protocols?

Dr. Garner has spent time reading the current research and has been to hands on training in stem cell culture methods. Stem cell processing techniques, administration techniques and cryogenic techniques are evolving very rapidly, and we adapt our systems to accommodate current knowledge. For example, some techniques for removing the cells from the fatty tissue may result in live cells, but these cells may also be stressed and less active than cells processed differently. Mixing activating chemicals derived from platelets may stimulate and nourish stem cells causing them to multiply faster and more effectively. Real research applied directly benefits our patients and we at Safari adapt these new methods to the betterment of the pet.

Most human treatments use bone marrow derived stem cells, so why do we use fat in dogs?

The presence of stem cells in fat tissue is a relatively new discovery. Stem cell research has been underway for many decades resulting in the bone marrow derived treatments now available, however, these treatments were too expensive for pets. The discovery of stem cells in fat tissue has allowed veterinarians to leapfrog to the newest technology to help pets. Over time, these treatments will be available to people once the FDA has finished their evaluations.

Are there different types of stem cells?

There are three basic groups of stem cells, embryonic stem cells (ESC), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are found in the placenta and embryos. Induced pluripotent stem cells are genetically modified fibroblasts that have similar properties to embryonic stem cells. Adult stem cells are present in blood, bone marrow and many tissues of the body. In recent years researchers have found that fat tissue has a rich supply of adult stem cells.

What type of stem cells are being used?

Autologous cells — those taken from the pet itself — are preferable.

What can stem cells do?

Stem cells can help repair many diseases, such as arthritis, that we have previously only been able to control symptomatically. Most understanding now is from arthritis and (Inter-vertebral) disc disease, but treatment options do exist for the following conditions, all with varying levels of supporting research: skin disease/allergies, diabetes, heart disease and other neurological conditions.

What can stem cells not do?

With current process, cells may struggle to resolve diseases where tissues have been destroyed or removed. Stem cells cannot regrow large sections of tissue, such as limbs, and cannot allow a spayed or neutered dog to breed, nor can stem cells cure cancer. Stem cells must be put (injected) into the correct location to be effective, therefore, I.V. stem cells are rarely effective.

Can stem cells be used to treat ACL injuries?

If your pet has a partial tear of its ACL (anterior cruciate ligament), stem cells can be used to repair the damage without the need for surgery. Stem cells can also be used to speed up healing in pets having ACL surgery. Since more than half the dogs that tear one ACL tear the other within a year, stem cell treatment is recommended for the other knee at the time of ACL surgery.

Can stem cells be used to treat spinal disease?

Neurologic disease is very challenging to treat. The location of the damage and the location of the symptoms are often very different places. To understand where the lesion is we use Myelogram and/or MRI to image the spinal cord and locate where there may be compression of the spinal tissue. Many cases of spinal compression are caused by a collapsed intervertebral disc. The disc usually collapses because the structure of the cartilage has prematurely degenerated. If this cartilage and the material within the disc can be regenerated, the disc will re-expand, re-inflate and reduce the pressure on the spinal cord. Injecting a small amount of stem cells into intervertebral discs is almost impossible without special imaging such as the use of a real time C-Arm radiography unit, which is not found in many veterinary hospitals. Injecting SVC along the spine and into damaged areas is just as essential for success, but cannot be done without the special skills of a neurosurgeon guided by very special imaging equipment.

What other therapy could be beneficial for arthritis or IVDD?

Laser therapy, weight loss, rehabilitation and general medical support, can all be performed with or without stem cells.

Do pets still need rehabilitation after stem cell therapy for IVDD?

Rehabilitation is an important component of the success of stem cell therapy. The spinal cord heals by reconnecting long nerve fibers together in the correct order. This is an incredibly complex feat when accomplished by the body. Nerve fibers receive impulses from the brain. These impulses travel down the spinal cord to the legs. When the spinal cord is damaged and the brain wants to move the right leg up, it sends impulses down a specific set of nerve fibers which never reach the right leg. Yet when these impulses travel to the point of damage, they release chemicals from the ends of the nerves that strive to instruct the stem cells in the area to heal, to the proper nerves from that right leg. If at the same time the right leg muscles are moving, then impulses from the leg up the spinal cord are trying to make it to the brain. When stem cells are placed into this damaged area, they are instructed by these chemicals released from these nerves how to reconnect the proper nerves. Without this stimulus, the stem cells will not "Know" what to connect to what. Therefore, I believe it is essential to provide electrostimulation, tactile stimulation, proprioceptive stimulation and mental stimulation together with stem cell therapy to create the environment for proper neurologic healing. Without special training and the equipment for this rehabilitation we would not be as successful as we are with stem cell therapy of the back and spine.

What options are there for rehabilitation after the cells are given?

Neurological and musculoskeletal conditions require rehabilitation. Multiple modalities such as physical therapy, electro-stimulation, therapeutic laser, therapeutic ultrasound, water treadmills and specialized certifications.

What is the difference between treating medically and using stem cells for arthritis?

Medical treatments for arthritis are intended to reduce pain and slow the progression of the disease, they are not able to restore normal tissue although they help improve function. Stem cells regrow/restore normal joint tissues.

What conditions can you treat my pet for with stem cells today?

Stem cell treatments are a way to intervene in the development of and potentially cure a whole host of illnesses and maladies including, but not limited to:

  • Allergic Skin Disease
  • Arthritis
  • Auto-Immune Disorders
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Disc Disease
  • Dry Eye
  • Fracture Repair
  • Heart Failure
  • Incontinence
  • Kidney Disease
  • Non-Healing Wounds
  • Orthopedic Injuries
  • Renal Failure
  • Spinal Cord Injury
  • Sudden Acquired Retinal Degeneration Syndrome (SARDS)

Is stem cell allowed by AKC/Other breed groups?

No restriction is currently known by any registry group.

How should a pet be diagnosed for stem cell therapy?

It is important to make an accurate diagnosis before starting stem cell therapy. For arthritic dogs, x-rays are required. For disc disease, x-rays and then MRI are best.

How quickly do stem cells work?

You can expect to see results as soon as two weeks after therapy. In arthritic pets, the full effect of stem cells therapy is not seen for 6 months.

How, exactly, do stem cells work?

Stem cells are “mother” cells giving rise to “daughter” cells, which differ from the parent. These differences are dictated by the needs of the body for repair. “Mother” stem cells placed into an arthritic joint, for example, will be bathed in the joint fluid that contains chemicals released from the diseased cartilage cells. These chemicals help direct the development of the “daughter” cells into new cartilage cells. These new cells replace the missing or damaged cells with new cartilage. This is regeneration, not healing. Healing results in the formation of scar tissue, or fibrous replacement tissue, that is not as functional as the original tissue. Stem cells regenerate the original cartilage tissue, just as it was when the animal was an infant.

How do stem cells get to the damaged tissues?

Stem Cells are chemotactic. This means they seek out damaged tissue to heal, therefore, administration of stem cells intravenously may be an effective means for therapy. Most stem cells given I.V. are filtered out by the lungs but they may not be killed and may make their way to other areas needing healing. It is also true that the more stem cells placed exactly at the area of disease the better the patient will heal. By placing stem cells directly into damaged tissues, we maximize the healing benefits of the treatment. Injecting the stem cells into the joints (without causing damage to the delicate cartilage and surrounding tissues), is important but may be beyond the technical capabilities of most veterinarians. C-Arm fluoroscopic guidance of the needle, as we can do at Safari, is the best way to insure the pet has the best chance of a successful therapy. Administration of stem cells into other organs, such as the kidneys or heart, requires ultrasound guidance or special catheters placed with the aid of fluoroscopic guidance.

How do stem cells repair the body?

When stem cells are transplanted into a new location in the body they can change, adapt and modify their function based on the environmental conditions that they find themselves in. The stem cells are like workers that receive their instructions in the form of chemicals in the local environment. They use the raw materials and structure like a carpenter uses lumber and blueprints to rebuild what is missing, damaged or poorly functional. The stem cells' DNA is modified by the chemicals surrounding the cells, causing each cellular division to more closely approximate the original cell and tissue structure. Therefore, a daughter stem cell may differ in cell type from its parent. For example, a stem cell from fat will form new cartilage cells when placed into a joint that has arthritis.

Do stem cells have other effects on the body?

As well as making new cells, stem cells also pump out chemical instructions that regulate and instruct other cells how to participate in the healing regenerative process. Stem cells modulate the inflammation present in a damaged tissue so as to reduce its harmful effects. Stem cells can also resuscitate dying cells by donating missing elements of life from the stem cells' cytoplasm to an injured cells' cytoplasm.

Can the body reject the stem cells?

Since the stem cells have been harvested from the pet’s own body, theoretically, the odds of rejection or occurrence of side effects are very minimal. This being the case, stem cell treatments essentially provide a less invasive, more viable and more sustainable therapeutic (or treatment approach) than traditional medicines and drugs.

Are there potential risks with the use of stem cell treatments?

Yes, due to the fact that much research is in the preliminary phases and with the lack of published results, stem cell treatments may have risks. However, the most common risk is that the treatment will not work, because all the factors for success may not be known.

In the case of cancer, although unproven, there is the danger of aggravating this disease. The introduction of stem cells into a pet with cancer may contribute to the uncontrolled growth of cells, which is the primary mechanism for cancer. There has never been a case that this has occurred with adult stem cells, but there are still relatively few cases treated, and this is a theoretical possibility.

Another danger is the unchecked use of the types of stem cells to be administered.

  • Embryonic stem cells are only used for research, are clinically dangerous, and cannot be controlled to prevent cancer.
  • Autologous stem cells are the safest form of stem cells and are those harvested from a pet and used in that same pet.
  • Allogenic stem cells come from another pet of the same species and are commonly used in stem cell research. These cells are not yet allowed by the US FDA for treating clinical patients, but are most likely safe.
  • Heterologous is the use of stem cells harvested from varied species, such as sheep and sharks. These cells have been used for treating human patients in countries without the supervision and regulation like that of our FDA. There are related stories abound on the Internet regarding this stem cell therapy approach in pets, and are the kind of far reaching applications that can scare the average pet owner off stem cells as an option for treatment.

What potential draw backs are there to stem cells? Are stem cells safe?

Yes, stem cells are safe, and they come from your own pet's tissue. There was concern initially that they might accelerate growth of cancer – this has not proven to be the case. It appears that the worst-case scenario is that cells are not effective, however, there is no potential risk to make the disease worse.

I've heard some dogs initially get worse after stem cell treatments?

Some dogs are required to stop arthritis therapy before stem cell treatments, which can cause worsening of symptoms. Additionally, PRP injections into joints can cause inflammation as part of the healing process, which can worsen arthritis symptoms in the short term.

Will my pet need another treatment?

Stem cells can help to repair damaged tissues and the sooner stem cell treatment is started the longer it is likely to last, because there is less damage to overcome. However, if the conditions which caused the arthritis are still present e.g. poor conformation or obesity, then over time the joint will start to deteriorate again, and another treatment may be necessary after a couple of years.

Are all stem cell treatments the same?

No. While stem cell treatment is available in some veterinary clinics, there are concerns about the effectiveness of their therapy. Stem cells are fragile, die easily and are prone to bacterial infection. One provider of stem cell service for veterinarians requires shipping of the stem cells overnight via FedEx, which greatly increases stem cell death. Another clinical option requires that the veterinarian process the stem cells from the fat collected from the pet using a centrifuge and water bath in the clinic. However, to help ensure success, a sterile biologic cabinet is needed to prevent infection while the stem cells are being processed, which in many cases, may not be available. On top of this, there is no way of knowing how many live stem cells are then injected into the pet – another critical success factor. Furthermore, few veterinarians have received training in stem cell processing techniques.

What does stem cell therapy cost?

About $2500 — We have a break down of the involved costs on our Cost Breakdown page.

What other factors influence the outcome of stem cell therapies?

Getting the right number of live cells in the right location is the key to success. Many people do not realize how fragile stem cells are compared to blood cells or other tissue and may handle them improperly. Studies have shown that the size of the needle used to inject stem cells greatly affects if they live through the process of being injected; too small a needle bore, and the cells die. Stem cells are 10 times larger than a blood cell and much more fragile. Laboratory techniques must be adhered to – mistakes can be fatal to the cells and how they are handled is important and trying to ship them across the country for administration is ill advised. In addition, the cells that are frozen in laboratories, distant to the veterinary practice that processed them, are likely freezing dead cells to begin with. Some companies recommend sending cells to them by overnight delivery for freezing and for counting. Neither of which would accurately estimate the dose of cells given. The dose matters. In the first studies of cells into an arthritic joint were given 50,000 cells per joint (these were cells from bone marrow that had been expanded) and the results were poor. With SVF cells there are so many cells that it is easy to give between 10 Million cells and 50 million cells per joint. This has proven to be effective. So, the number of live cells per joint matters and unless you can determine that at the point of care you cannot know if your stem cell therapy will work.

Is rehab essential if you have stem cells?

No, not essential, but rehab can greatly improve function after treatment or surgery; as with any musculoskeletal disease. The results with rehab are better than if rehab was not done but it is not compulsory.

Why choose Safari for stem cell therapy?

Doing things right makes a difference. Our stem cell laboratory is state of the art; our equipment and training maximize the number of live cells ready for transplanting. Our stem cell administration is state of the art; we use specialized imaging equipment to get stem cells right to the damaged tissues. Our aftercare is also state of the art; we have specially trained staff and all the equipment needed to fully rehabilitate your pet in the post-op period. We look to the future; we have the ability to store the cells, to make multiple administrations, because of our cryogenics and our knowledge of how it is properly done.

Why do many veterinarians not offer stem cell therapies?

Stem cell therapy has been met with skepticism in the veterinary profession and there are many stories of veterinarians who have sincerely tried this mode of therapy only to be met with less than favorable results. I believe there are rational reasons that some cases of stem cell therapy respond, and some do not. To understand this, we need to look more closely at what is produced when we process fat into stem cells. When the fat tissue is processed it forms three segments: fat, stem cells and everything else or stromal vascular fraction (SVF). So far, over 300 growth factors have been identified in stem cells and the stromal vascular fraction. For example, in cardiovascular disease of humans, it has been shown that the SVF, when given alone without any cells at all, has positive effects to the heart muscle. This means that all the stem cells could be dead and there would still be a positive effect. I think many of the cases that were successful with arthritis, for example, were effective because of the growth factors alone; but no live cells were placed into the joint. These growth factors caused the resident stem cells to proliferate and heal the joint to a certain point. If these factors were not placed properly they would not be effective. On the other hand, live cells with growth factors, such as is found in fresh SVF, even if given close to a joint may be effective because the cells will be attracted and will migrate to damaged tissue. Dead cells will not migrate, nor will they produce additional growth factors to carry on the healing process for a longer period of time.

Have there been many patients treated with stem cells?

There are over 600 clinics treating humans in the United States today. Because you are essentially transplanting cells from one part of the body to another, the process does not need explicit approval from the FDA. People are paying tens of thousands of dollars per treatment and thousands of patients are being treated with their own cells, with very few negative reactions and mostly positive outcomes.

Are there clinical studies that show these therapies work?

Basically, there are two schools of thought. One view is that NO!, right now unfortunately, the field is just not there – meaning there is not clinical evidence that these therapies work in the real world. Others, however, do not share this view, and are in fact offering to cure a wide range of pets’ diseases with stem cell treatments.

Are most Veterinary stem cell treatments still in the research phase?

Yes. It is crucial to keep in mind that most stem cell treatments – apart from bone marrow transplantation – are still in the research stages and have not undergone clinical trials. Studies in animals are being done, but with an eye on proving that a treatment works in humans; not necessarily for the benefit of animals themselves. Many of the research studies have been done outside the US for years, because embryonic stem cell research was banned or severely restricted here in the US since 2006 by presidential decree. With the discovery of adult stem cells readily obtained from the pet’s own fat tissue, however, clinical trials are starting in the major veterinary institutions and actual clinical use of stem cells has become more available.

What makes Safari Different?

Safari stands apart and is well ahead of the curve when it comes to stem cell therapy, as compared to other veterinary hospitals or companies providing stem cell therapy to pets. At Safari, we use the specialist laboratory equipment and techniques for processing our samples without the disadvantages of shipping and time delays.

What are the advantages of adipose derived stem cells?

Previously, adult stem cells were collected by a bone marrow biopsy. The cells were then cultured, and the culture expanded. The process of culturing and growing enough cells to be effective could take three to six weeks. As well as this time delay, the bone marrow derived cells had now been grown in culture and are less hardy and may have lost some of their ability to heal. We can harvest enough adipose derived stem cells from our pet’s own fat that there is no need to culture the cells and therapy can be done within a few hours of removing the fatty tissue.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of embryonic stem cells?

While embryonic stem cells have more potential for development into different tissues than adult stem cells, they are less predictable and less hardy than the adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells come from fertilized eggs and must be grown in tissue culture. This is a difficult process, requiring strict infection control and strict environmental manipulation. Any stress on these cells causes them to change, to adapt to try to survive by differentiating themselves, thereby creating a challenge in the control of the outcome with these cells. Controlled differentiation is possible through the manipulation of the nutrients and chemicals present in their culture so that different cell types can be created. These may be muscle cells, nerve cells or bone cells and so on. Cells that produce insulin have been created in the laboratory from embryonic stem cells. Large numbers of these cells would be necessary for therapy however, and growing large numbers is problematic and the longer they grow in culture the less tolerant of normal body conditions they become. Embryonic stem cells have been studied for over three decades with many researchers spending their lives trying to unravel the complexities of the control and characterization of these remarkable cells. Another disadvantage of embryonic cells is that unless our parents had the foresight to have some placental cells stored when we were born, we would need to rely on donated cells for treatment.

What is the difference between embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells?

Embryonic cells cannot be used for therapy because they are unpredictable.

Adult stem cells do not have all the capabilities for development that embryonic cells have. This means that they can only be used for certain types of tissues, however, adult stem cells have the added advantage that they are more controllable and will not cause tumors.

Could induced pluripotent stem cells be used instead of embryonic cells?

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be grown from fibroblasts, which are found in skin. Induced pluripotent stem cells are adult cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell–like state by being forced to express genes and factors important for maintaining the defining properties of embryonic stem cells. Although these cells meet the defining criteria for pluripotent stem cells, it is not known if iPSCs and embryonic stem cells differ in clinically significant ways. Mouse iPSCs were first reported in 2006, and human iPSCs were first reported in late 2007. I have had the privilege of spending time training in the creation and cultivation of these cells in the laboratory; learning techniques for culturing and characterizing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), as well as reprogramming techniques for the creation of iPSCs. Although there is huge potential for programming these cells there is much research still to be done before we can grow our own replacement body parts from spare skin.

Does Veterinary stem cell therapy use embryos?

No. Most of the current stem cell treatments utilize adult stem cells, normally harvested from the pet’s fat stores, and these stem cells are introduced into the damaged part of the body. The stem cells then self-renew within the damaged part, promoting growth of new tissues and subsequently replace the diseased tissues. This type of stem cell is called autologous.

Can stem cells be used to grow replacement organs?

If we want to grow replacement organs in the laboratory, we need to understand the structure of the tissues. Stem cells live in a body that has three-dimensional structure. Each organ has a structural framework and specific cells attached to it. This 3D structure and the cells and scaffolds that hold it speak a tactile language to the stem cell communicating the needs of the tissue. This communication, plus the chemical and cellular communication, all happening at a microscopic level, determines the ultimate fate of these cells. For example, a lung from a pig can be digested free of cells, leaving only the structural collagen “skeleton”. Then stem cells from a human can be applied to this three-dimensional structure and will grow to form a complete functional human lung that can be transplanted into that human with an identical genetic match and without tissue rejection that is commonly seen with donor supplied transplanted lungs.